22 February, 2018

The Will of Richard, Earl of Arundel (c. 1313-1376)

Richard, earl of Arundel - often called Richard Fitzalan by modern writers, though he himself did not use that name - was the son and heir of Edmund, earl of Arundel (1285-1326), and the nephew and heir of John de Warenne, earl of Surrey (1286-1347). Richard's date of birth is not known, but in December 1344 when annulling his first marriage to Hugh Despenser the Younger's daughter Isabella he claimed to have been seven at the time of their wedding on 9 February 1321, so he was probably born in 1313 or the beginning of 1314. On 5 February 1345 at Ditton in Buckinghamshire, Richard married his second wife Eleanor, fifth of the six daughters of Henry, earl of Lancaster (who died a few months later, on 22 September 1345). Eleanor was the widow of John, Lord Beaumont, who died in c. April/May 1342. Richard's son Edmund from his first marriage to Isabella Despenser was made illegitimate by the annulment of his parents' marriage in late 1344. I've written before about Richard's callous and revolting treatment of his eldest child, whom he nastily referred to as "that certain Edmund who claims himself to be my son."

Richard and Eleanor of Lancaster had five children: Richard, earl of Arundel; John, admiral of England; Thomas, bishop of Ely, archbishop of York then archbishop of Canterbury; Joan, countess of Hereford (and Henry V's grandmother); and Alice, countess of Kent. Eleanor of Lancaster, Lady Beaumont and countess of Arundel, died in January 1372, and Richard followed her to the grave almost exactly four years later, in his sixties. He was probably the richest man in England in the entire fourteenth century, or at least one of the top two or three (his brother-in-law, Eleanor's only brother Henry of Grosmont, first duke of Lancaster, was another). Richard wrote his will at Arundel Castle in Sussex on 5 December 1375, a few weeks before he died, asking to be buried at Lewes Priory next to his wife 'Alianore de Lancastre.'  His and Eleanor's children married and had their own children very young, and Arundel was a grandfather many times over when he died; his eldest grandchild was born in 1364. He was particularly fond of his second son John's children, and left John's (unnamed in the will) eldest daughter 1,000 marks or £666. John's younger sons Henry, Edward and William were left 500 marks each. John's eldest son and Arundel's eldest grandchild, also John (b. 1364), was left nothing, and neither were any of Arundel's other grandchildren. They included the great heiresses Eleanor and Mary de Bohun (daughters of the earl of Hereford and Arundel's elder daughter Joan), Elizabeth Fitzalan or Arundel, future countess of Nottingham, countess marshal and duchess of Norfolk (wife of the Thomas Mowbray who was exiled by Richard II in 1398, and eldest child of Arundel's eldest son and successor Richard), and the Holland children of Arundel's younger daughter Alice and her husband Thomas, Richard II's half-brother and earl of Kent, though only two or three of them had been born by late 1375.

The earl of Arundel left 5,000 marks and his house in London called Bermondsey Inn to his second son John, and gave his third son Thomas, then bishop of Ely, 2,000 marks. He also gave his best coronet to his eldest son and successor Richard, his second best coronet to his elder daughter Joan and the third best to his younger daughter Alice. Arundel's sister 'Dame Alaine Lestrange', one of the daughters of Edmund, earl of Arundel executed in 1326, outlived him, and he left her and her children a total of 1,500 marks on top of the 1,000 marks he had given them already. The will also mentions his uncle 'John Arundell.' I don't know who this is, but likely an illegitimate son of Arundel's grandfather Richard, earl of Arundel (1267-1302) and presumably born near the end of that earl of Arundel's life given that he was still alive in 1375. (John wasn't the legitimate son of that earl of Arundel, who joined the Church: see here.)

Richard, earl of Arundel, was massively generous to the people he loved, and told his executors to be "good to my children." That sounds nice, but he did not include his eldest son Edmund (who was already close to fifty when his father died in 1376) whom he had made illegitimate and sneered at as "that certain Edmund who claims himself to be my son." Needless to say, neither Edmund nor his three daughters from his marriage to the earl of Salisbury's daughter Sybil Montacute received anything in the will.


sami parkkonen said...

Seems like Rick had something against his first wife and their kids. Otherwise he was just a darn cruel dad.

Carolyn Grace said...

As a descendant of Edmund and Sybil, I am so curious as to what went down between Richard and Isabella. Richard sounds nasty, but Isabella might have been a piece of work, too... Or maybe Edmund himself was a brat. So many possibilities! Katheryn, could it be that Richard might have wanted to divest himself of Despensers in the current climate?